Wanted individuals who personally surrendered to Philippine Presidents

On August 28, 2013 at 9:47 PM alleged mastermind of the 10 Billion Pesos PDAF Scam surrendered to President Noynoy Aquino in Malacanang and was escorted to Camp Crame afterwards. On August 29, 2013 a briefer was published on the Briefing Room section of the Official Gazette (www.gov.ph) on wanted individuals who personally surrendered to Presidents.

On August 28, 2013 at 9:47 PM alleged mastermind of the 10 Billion Pesos PDAF Scam surrendered to President Noynoy Aquino in Malacanang and was escorted to Camp Crame afterwards. On August 29, 2013 a briefer was published on the Briefing Room section of the Official Gazette (www.gov.ph) on wanted individuals who personally surrendered to Presidents.

Several issues need to be raised:

First, it was made to appear that two of the names mentioned were “bandits.” In fact, Filipino historians have repeatedly stated that these people lead radical peasant movements against oppression during the American colonial period. American Colonial Authorities at that time were in the habit of tagging all opposition to their rule with banditry.

Nicolas Encollado who surrendered to Tayabas Governor Maximo Rodriguez on January 17, 1936 was, according to the Gazette, a “Tayabas Bandit.” He was brought to the Malacanang Palace the following day to confer with President Quezon, who later gave him parole under the condition that he secure the surrender of his sons and other followers. On January 19, Governor Rodriguez accompanied Encollado on his return to Tayabas.

According to Paz (1994), contrary to news reports and claims by the national government at that time, Encollado was not a bandit but a local healer and a former revolutionary who organized a movement in his locality against oppression. He was actually directly or indirectly supported by the local residents and government officials. Later, he joined forces with Teodoro Asedillo and his Katipunan ng mga Anak Pawis (KAP). Upon his surrender, he refuted charges of murder and robbery against him.

Second, according to the Gazette, “on January 20, 1936 Tayabas bandit Teodoro Asedillo surrendered and was brought to Malacañan Palace to meet President Manuel L. Quezon personally. Quezon received Asedillo and allowed him to be taken back to to his province by the Governor of Tayabas in the presidential car. Asedillo promised to return in three days with his sons and chief followers. No promise of pardon had been given.”

The problem is Teodoro Asedillo, who is a cadre of the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas and was the provincial head of a radical group called Katipunan ng mga Anak Pawis (KAP) linked with the provincial leadership of the Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas in Tayabas and Laguna, was killed in an encounter with the Philippine Constabulary on November 1935 in Cavinti, Laguna (Bituin, 2008). Other sources say that he was cornered and killed in December 1935 in Sampalok, Tayabas (Miranda, 2005). How could he surrender if he was already dead? The Gazette’s source is the diary of Francis Burton Harrison recorded at the Philippine Diary Project  (http://philippinediaryproject.wordpress.com/1936/01/22/january-22-1936/). According to Paz (1994), Quezon was attacked by the Press and the ruling class because of his light treatment with Encollado. It is possible that Harrison confused Asedillo with Encollado since the two were together in the movement. Encollado was also little known outside the Province of Tayabas before his surrender and meeting with President Quezon.

Third, all names mentioned in the Briefer did not surrender to Philippine Presidents. They only met with the President after they surrendered, since all of them were important leaders of major rebel movements.

Finally, it is important to note that no common criminal has every surrendered or have met with a sitting President in the History of the Philippines.

 

References:

Bituin, Gregorio Jr. (1998), “Talambuhay ni Teodoro Asedillo: Magiting na Guro, Lider-Manggagawa, Bayani,” in Tupang Pula accessed from http://tupangpula.blogspot.com/2008/06/teodoro-asedillo.html on 28 August 2013.

Paz, Victor (1994), “Nicolas Encallado: Kapitan Kulas, Remontado, Manggagamot” in Veneracion, Jaime (ed.), Ang Kilusang Masa sa Kasaysayan Pilipino (1900-1992), Philippine Social Science Review, Special Issue, pp 82-110

Miranda, Evelyn (2005). “Ongoing Radical Movement in Northeastern Laguna Province: Case Study of the Locality of Cavinti from the 1920s to the Present,” paper presented at the 1st Talastasan Series of the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of the Philippines, Diliman, February 2005

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